I Verdi, il jolly tedesco. Per un’Europa solidale

In seguito ai successi elettorali dello scorso ottobre in Assia e Baviera, il partito dei Verdi punta ora a fare il pieno anche alle prossime elezioni europee del 2019.

Ideologicamente antitetici alla destra dell’Alternativa per la Germania (AFD), gli ecologisti giocheranno la carta della formazione “pro-Europa”. Ma cosa prevede concretamente il programma elettorale?  

Innanzitutto più investimenti

Le risorse per il Quadro di finanziamento pluriennale (QFP, budget dell’Ue) che dovrebbero passare dall’attuale 1% al 1.3% del Pil. Le coperture verrebbero da un insieme di “risorse proprie” dell’Ue, a partire da una tassa sui profitti dei colossi dell’economia “digitale” e da un sistema unico di tassazione delle imprese.

C’è poi l’idea di un “Green New Deal” finanziato da maggiore “flessibilità” sulle regole sul deficit, tramite lo scorporo della spesa per investimenti dal saldo di bilancio nazionale.

Il Fondo europeo per gli investimenti strategici (FEIS) dovrebbe a sua volta diventare uno strumento di lungo periodo, come anche il programma Garanzia giovani, da trasformare in un percorso di  formazione “duale” alla tedesca. Infine, c’è l’invito agli Stati membri ad aumentare le quote di capitale presso la Banca europea per gli investimenti (BEI).

I pilastri

Vi sono ambiziose proposte di riforma istituzionale, articolate in tre pilastri. Il primo è il budget per la stabilizzazione dell’Eurozona – obiettivo 1% del Pil – sotto la responsabilità del Parlamento europeo (PE) e coperto sia dalla tassazione sulle imprese che dalla lotta all’evasione. Il secondo pilastro è un’assicurazione di disoccupazione europea che vada a integrare gli schemi nazionali. Il terzo pilastro riguarda infine la trasformazione del Meccanismo europeo di stabilità (MES) in un Fondo monetario europeo per gestire le crisi finanziarie. Il MES andrebbe ancorato al PE, il quale avrebbe compiti di controllo e di “nomina” del direttore. Il Fondo dovrebbe assicurare che nella definizione e valutazione dei piani di riforme strutturali vengano considerate anche le conseguenze sociali. Sarebbero previsti “crediti preventivi” senza contropartita per proteggere Paesi in crisi dalla speculazione finanziaria.


Inoltre, i Verdi sponsorizzano la creazione di un meccanismo di rientro da livelli di debito pubblico eccessivi. Come? Tramite l’istituzione di un fondo comune per elargire prestiti a tassi scontati funzionali al ripagamento di quote di debito eccedenti il 60% del Pil. ll modello è quello formulato dal Consiglio di Esperti economici della Germania nel 2012 e prevede diritto di accesso alla linea di credito solo per Paesi che rispettano il Patto di stabilità. Infine, c’è l’invito a cumulare le cariche di Commissario agli Affari economici e di Presidente dell’Eurogruppo.

Politiche sociali

Molta enfasi è infine posta sulle politiche sociali. Oltre allo schema di disoccupazione paneuropeo, i Verdi vorrebbero che i “diritti sociali ancorati ai Trattati” avessero il valore di “diritti fondamentali”, “al pari delle libertà fondamentali” e che, quindi, potessero essere impugnati dai singoli cittadini presso la Corte di giustizia europea. Il programma prevede poi l’estensione dell’istituto della mittbestimmung (cogestione) a tutti gli Stati membri, nonché l’istituzione di livelli del salario minimo in tutti i Paesi Ue e controlli più stringenti per garantire il rispetto della nuova Direttiva sui lavoratori mobili.

I sondaggi confermano che i Verdi sono appaiati alla SPD (partito socialdemocratico). A livello nazionale, è stato addirittura ipotizzato uno scambio al governo tra SPD e Verdi, a fianco della CDU. La credibilità dello scenario dipende anche dai risultati effettivi delle elezioni europee.

(Pubblicato originariamente su Corriere della Sera – L’Economia, 17.12.2018)

83 pensieri riguardo “I Verdi, il jolly tedesco. Per un’Europa solidale”

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