Le elezioni europee 2014 nei media tedeschi: un’analisi del dibattito pubblico

Quale deve essere la forma di questa Europa? E quale dovrebbe essere il ruolo della Germania? Durante gli ultimi anni, lo smarrimento intellettuale della classe politica europea è diventato il terreno su cui si sono innestate e sono state coltivate specifiche tensioni politiche tra Stati membri dell’UE. In particolare, le contingenti crisi economiche non hanno fatto altro che evidenziare le tensioni da tempo latenti, ma mai risolte, tra la dimensione economica e quella sociale dell’UE.

Il 22 febbraio 2013, il presidente della Repubblica Federale Tedesca, Joachim Gauck, teneva il suo discorso sulle prospettive dell’idea europea (Rede zur Perspektiven der europäischen Idee) presso il Castello Bellavista di Berlino. La sala ospitava ministri del Governo tedesco, rappresentanti della società civile e studenti universitari. «Non c’è mai stata così tanta Europa» (Gauck 2013, 1): in questo modo Joachim Gauck iniziava la sua relazione, conscio della situazione paradossale in cui il Vecchio Continente si trovava. Con un’Unione Europea stretta tra la crisi economica finanziaria mondiale da una parte e quella del debito pubblico greco dall’altra, il Presidente non faceva altro che riconoscere il punto di non ritorno del percorso di integrazione e, allo stesso tempo, la situazione di stallo del più grande progetto istituzionale del secondo dopoguerra:

Per me questa giornata rappresenta […] l’occasione per tornare a riflettere criticamente su alcune parole che pronunciai il giorno della mia investitura: «Vogliamo rischiare più Europa». Oggi non riformulerei quelle parole altrettanto velocemente. Questo «più Europa» ha almeno bisogno di un significato, necessita di una specificazione. Dove è che l’Europa può e deve portare a una maggiore integrazione? Quale dev’essere la forma di questa Europa? Cosa vogliamo sviluppare e rafforzare, e cosa vogliamo limitare? E non in ultimo: come possiamo trovare più fiducia, di quanta non ne abbiamo oggi, nell’espressione «più Europa»? (ibidem).

Le parole di Gauck descrivono bene il punto di arrivo a cui era giunta, all’inizio del 2013, la crisi economico-politico-istituzionale iniziata nel 2007: uno smarrimento intellettuale e culturale, prima ancora che economico o politico, degli attori politici europei. Dopo una serie di riflessioni sui principi fondanti dell’UE (democrazia, libertà, uguaglianza, Stato di diritto, solidarietà), Gauck arrivava infine alla parte più delicata del suo discorso, quella riguardante il ruolo della Germania in Europa:

Mi preoccupa che in alcuni paesi il ruolo della Germania scateni scetticismo e sentimenti di sfiducia. Sì, è vero, la Germania ha profittato dell’euro. L’euro ha rafforzato la Germania. E il fatto che la Germania sia diventata la maggiore potenza economica del continente dopo la riunificazione ha fatto paura a molti. Mi spaventa con che velocità si possano distorcere le percezioni, come se la Germania si trovasse nella scia di una tradizionale politica di potenza. Non sono solo i partiti populisti che hanno rappresentato il cancelliere tedesco come rappresentante di uno 20 Alexander D. Ricci Le elezioni europee 2014 nei media tedeschi: un’analisi del dibattito pubblico Stato che vuole costringere e sottomettere gli altri popoli […] Io voglio rassicurare tutti i cittadini e cittadine dei paesi membri: non vedo alcuna manifestazione politica in Germania che sostenga un Diktat tedesco […] Con profonda convinzione posso dire: più Europa non vuol dire un’«Europa tedesca». Per noi, più Europa vuol dire una «Germania europea!» (ivi, 10).

Le parole usate da Gauck non erano casuali. Qualche mese prima, Ulrich Beck, noto sociologo tedesco, aveva pubblicato un saggio dal titolo Europa tedesca, in cui accusava Angela Merkel di perseguire una politica di potenza in Europa. In particolare, Beck (2013) accusava il Governo del proprio paese di aver guadagnato una posizione egemonica nel continente e di essere responsabile dell’equilibrio negativo venutosi a creare nell’UE. Oggi, a più di un anno dal discorso di Gauck, se può dirsi «superata» la fase critica legata al «problema greco», rimangono gli stessi interrogativi posti in quel discorso: quale deve essere la forma di questa Europa? E quale dovrebbe essere il ruolo della Germania? Durante gli ultimi anni, lo smarrimento intellettuale della classe politica europea è diventato il terreno su cui si sono innestate e sono state coltivate specifiche tensioni politiche tra Stati membri dell’UE. In particolare, le contingenti crisi economiche non hanno fatto altro che evidenziare le tensioni da tempo latenti, ma mai risolte, tra la dimensione economica e quella sociale dell’UE.

(Continua su Biblioteca della Libertà)

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